Wednesday, 23 December 2015

Wasomi wengi wanaelezea kuwa mwaka alio zaliwa Nabii Yesu ni kati ya 4 BC na 6 BC kuzingatia ukweli kwamba Mfalme Herode alikufa katika majira ya spring mwaka 4 BC 

Gerard na Patricia Del Re wanaelezea kuwa siku ya Desemba 25 ilikuwa ni siku ya sherehe rasmi ya Kirumi: "Saturnalia na kalends (new moon)” ilikuwa ni sherehe ya kipagani ambayo kwayo ilikuwa maalufu na ilikuwa ikisheherekewa  na Wapagani wengi, kati ya 17-24 Desemba na Januari 1-3. mapokeo ya kusheherekea Desemba 25 kama siku ya kuzaliwa Yesu yalikuja kwa Warumi kutoka Uajemi. Mithra, mungu wa Kiajemi wa mwanga na sacred contracts aliyezaliwa kwenye mwamba Desemba 25. Kama inavyo julikana Rumi ilikuwa maarufu kwa flirtations zake kwa miungu na ibada za kiajabu, na kwenye karne ya tatu (274) ya mtawala ambaye hakuwa mkristo aitwaye Aurelian alianzisha sherehe zilizo julikana kwa Dies Invicti Solis, au "Invincible Sun god" Siku isiyo onekana jua, Desemba 25. Mungu ambaye Warumi wakimwabudu mara moja kwa wiki kwa "dies Solis", ambayo ni siku ya "Jumapili". Constantine kwa kutumia ujanja aliamuru kwamba siku hii ya Jumapili (sunday) hiwe ni siku ya mapumziko na ibada katika Kanisa la Kikristo.

(The Gospel of Matthew places Jesus' birth under the reign of Herod the Great, who died in 4 BC. The author of Matthew also recorded that Herod had all the male children in Bethlehem two years old and younger executed, based on a prophecy relayed to him by the magi that a new King of the Jews had been born in the town. The order's instruction of "two and under", along with the inference that it took Herod time to realize that the magi were not about to deliver the child to him, implies a birth no later than 6-4 BC. The Gospel of Luke dates the birth ten years after Herod's death during the census of Quirinius, described by the historian Josephus. Most scholars consider the Gospel of Luke to be mistaken, though some writers still attempt to reconcile its account with the details given by Josephus)
"Mithra alikuwa mwakilishi wa jua, hivyo muda huu wa kuzaliwa upya December 25 ni siku kubwa katika imani ya Kimithra, imani ambayo ilikuja kuwa imani ya nchi ya Rumi na kuwa dini rasmi na kuungwa mkono na Aurelian. Inaaminiwa kuwa Mfalme Constantine alikuwa muumini wa Mithraism mpaka alipokuja kubatizwa, na akaja na sikukuu hii ya kipagani. Constantine  akutaka kuiwacha siku hii kubwa ya dini yake ya zamani ife"
(Rejea: The Christmas Almanac, 1979, p. 17). 
Quote:
(From: Catholic Encyclopedia, (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03724b.htm)
Christmas was not among the earliest festivals of the Church. Irenaeus and Tertullian omit it from their lists of feasts; Origen, glancing perhaps at the discreditable imperial Natalitia, asserts (in Lev. Hom. viii in Migne, P.G., XII, 495) that in the Scriptures sinners alone, not saints, celebrate their birthday; Arnobius (VII, 32 in P.L., V, 1264) can still ridicule the "birthdays" of the gods.)

Tarehe hii ya Desemba 25 imekuja miaka 300 baada ya kuondoka Yesu.. wanahistoria wanakubaliana kwa ujumla kwamba ilikuja kuanzishwa karne ya nne. Na wakristo wa mwanzoni hawakuisheherekea kwa kuwa ilikuwa ni sikukuu ya kipagani. Lakini kwa jitihada za kibabe za mfalme Constantine, ikalazimika hata wale wakristo waliokuwa wanampinga kusheherekea hii sikukuu ili kuepukana na maswahibu na adhabu zilizokuwa zikitolewa kwa yeyote anaye mpinga Constantine.

Sikukuu hii ilifanywa maarufu na Papa Liberius katika 354 na kwa tawala za kimagharibi katika mwaka 435 "Christ mass" ilikuja kuthibitishwa Papa Sixtus III. Kwani sikukuu hii inakwenda sambamba na tarehe za sherehe za Warumi kwa mungu wao jua, na vile vile kwa dini ya Mithras, dini maalufu toka Uajemi (Iran) nao wakiamini mungu jua alizaliwa tarehe hiyo hiyo.


"I have heard that Christmas has been around for nearly 4,000 years. If that is true, and I think it is, I do not see any evidence that the early apostolic Church observed Christmas or tried to 'Christianize' a pagan festival that predated Christ's birth. 
"It seems clear to me that the apostles and early Church kept the Holy Days recorded in the Old Testament, and there are several Old Testament scriptures that speak about the Holy Days being kept by all people after Christ's return to earth. The Bible is clear that we are to shun paganism and observe the annual Holy Days and the weekly Sabbath day."
—D.N., Oklahoma

Mwandishi wa Kikatoliki Mario Righetti kwa utii kabisa anakubali kwamba, "ili kuwezesha kukubalika imani ya kikatoliki kwa Wapagani, Kanisa la Roma wakaona ni busara Desemba 25 kuwa ni sikukuu ya kuzaliwa kwa Kristo. Wakaigeuza ile sikukuu maarufu ya kipagani na kuwa sikukuu ya kikristo, sikukuu ya kumpa heshima 'Invincible Sun' Mithras na mshindi wa giza "(Rejea: Historia ya Mwongozo wa Kiliturujia, 1955, Vol. 2, p. 67).
(In Cyprus, at the end of the fourth century, Epiphanius asserts against the Alogi (Hær., li, 16, 24 in P.G., XLI, 919, 931) that Christ was born on 6 January and baptized on 8 November. Ephraem Syrus (whose hymns belong to Epiphany, not to Christmas) proves that Mesopotamia still put the birth feast thirteen days after the winter solstice; i.e. 6 January; Armenia likewise ignored, and still ignores, the December festival. (Cf. Euthymius, "Pan. Dogm.", 23 in P.G., CXXX, 1175; Niceph., "Hist. Eccl,", XVIII, 53 in P.G., CXLVII, 440; Isaac, Catholicos of Armenia in eleventh or twelfth century, "Adv. Armenos", I, xii, 5 in P.G., CXXII, 1193; Neale, "Holy Eastern Church", Introd., p. 796). In Cappadocia, Gregory of Nyssa's sermons on St. Basil (who died before 1 January, 379) and the two following, preached on St. Stephen's feast (P.G., XLVI, 788; cf, 701, 721), prove that in 380 the 25th December was already celebrated there, unless, following Usener's too ingenious arguments (Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen, Bonn, 1889, 247-250), one were to place those sermons in 383. Also, Asterius of Amaseia (fifth century) and Amphilochius of Iconium (contemporary of Basil and Gregory) show that in their dioceses both the feasts of Epiphany and Nativity were separate (P.G., XL, 337 XXXIX, 36).)

Kumbuka kuwa wakati nchi nyingi zenye wakristo usherehekea Krismasi tarehe 25 Desemba kila mwaka, baadhi ya makanisa ya Orthodox ya Mashariki, pamoja na wale wa Urusi, Georgia, Misri, Ukraina, Jamhuri ya Makedonia, Serbia na Wagiriki wa Patriarka wa Yerusalemu kusherehekea Sikukuu hii tarehe 7 Januari. Hii ni kwa sababu ya matumizi yao ya jadi Julian Calendar, Desemba 25 inaangukia tarehe 7 Januari. Upande mwingine pamoja na Armenian Apostolic Church duniani kote wanasherehekea Krismasi Januari 6.
Hata hivyo, ingawa Constantine aliifanya rasmi tarehe 25 Disemba kama ni sherehe ya kuzaliwa Kristo, Wakristo wakiitambua kama ni tarehe ya sherehe iliyofanana na mapagani, hawakushiriki katika mambo mazuri (kwa siku hii) iliyopangwa na Askofu. Krismasi ilishindwa kupata utambulisho wa kilimwengu miongoni mwa Wakristo hadi kipindi cha hivi karibuni. Huko Uingereza England, Oliver Cromwell alizipiga marufuku sherehe za Krismasi baina ya miaka 1649 na 1660 kupitia kwa inayoitwa Sheria za Rangi Samawati Blue Laws, akiamini kwamba iwe ni siku ya kumuabudu mungu tu.

Quote:
"God tells us to avoid the ways of the ancient pagans. Though modern Christianity observes Christmas, this is where it came from. To be frank, Christmas is a lie. Christmas is a substitute for righteous behavior. It makes people think they are doing good things for God, which somehow does Him service."
—A.H., Australia

Hamu ya kuifurahia sherehe ya Krismasi ilikirimiwa pale Waprotestanto (Wakristo wasiokubali baadhi ya mafundisho ya Kanisa la Kirumi) walipokimbia uchunguzi kwa kutorokea sehemu za makoloni yote duniani. Hata hivyo, Krismasi bado haikuwa ni sikukuu halali hadi miaka ya 1800. Na, weka akilini, hakukuwa na picha ya Baba Krismasi (Santa Claus) kwa wakati huo.

UMAARUFU WA KRISMASI

Umaarufu wa Krismasi ulianza ghafla mnamo mwaka 1820 kutokana na kitabu cha Washington Irving The Keeping of Christmas at Bracebridge Hall ‘Kuiadhimisha Krismasi Kwenye Jukwaa La Bracebridge’. Mnamo mwaka 1834, Malkia wa Uingereza aitwaye Victoria, alimkaribisha mumewe wa Kijerumani Prince Albert ndani ya Ngome ya Windso Windsor Castle, akimuonesha tamaduni za mti wa Krismasi Christmas tree na Nyimbo Za Kumsifu Yesu Kristo carols ambazo ziliadhimishwa Uingereza kwa Mfalme wa Uingereza. Mwaka 1834, wiki moja kabla ya Krismasi, Charles Dickens alichapisha Nyimbo za Kumsifu Yesu za Krismasi Christmas Carols (ambapo aliandika kwamba Scrooge alimuamrisha Cratchit kufanya kazi, na kwamba Baraza Kuu la Marekani US Congress lilikutana Siku ya Krismasi). Ilikuja kuwa ni maarufu mno hadi kufikia kwamba sio makanisa wala serikali kukana umuhimu wa sherehe za Krismasi. Mnamo mwaka 1836, Alabama ilikuja kuwa ni taifa la mwanzo ndani ya Marekani kutangaza Krismasi kama sikukuu halali. Mnamo mwaka 1860, mfananishi illustrator wa Marekani aitwaye Thomas Nast alichukua kutoka hadithi za Kiingereza kuhusu Mtakatifu Nicholas, muangalizi mtakatifu wa watoto, kumtengeneza Baba Krismasi Father Christmas. Mwaka 1907, Oklahoma ilikuwa ni ya mwisho miongoni mwa mataifa ya Marekani kutangaza Krismasi kama ni sikukuu halali. Mwaka baada ya mwaka, nchi za dunia nzima zilianza kuitambua Krismasi kama ni siku ya kusherehekea kuzaliwa kwa Yesu.

NAKUOMBEA KRISMASI NJEMA HAVE A MERRY CHRISTMAS

Leo, mambo mengi yasiyokuwa ya Kikristo yananasibishwa ndani ya Krismasi. Yesu alizaliwa mwezi wa Machi, bado siku yake ya kuzaliwa inasherehekewa Disemba ya 25, wakati wa solstice. Sherehe za Krismasi zinamalizikia siku kumi na mbili za Krismasi (Disemba 25 hadi Januari 6), ni idadi hiyo hiyo ya siku ambazo zilisherehekewa na wapagani wa ki-Rumi wakale kwa kuadhimisha kurudi kwa jua. Hivyo, hakuna mshangano wowote kwamba Wakristo waliosafi puritans – au Wakristo wasiotaka mabadiliko conservative – watahamaki kwa Krismasi kuwa “sio ya kidini kama ilivyotakikana kuwa,” wakisahau kwamba Krismasi haikusherehekewa hata kidogo hadi siku za hivi karibuni.

JE, YESU ALIZALIWA DISEMBA YA 25?

Si tarehe ya Disemba 25 wala tarehe nyengine yoyote iliyotajwa ndani ya Biblia kuhusu kuzaliwa kwa Yesu. Ilikuwa ni hivyo hadi kufikia mwaka 530 C.E kwamba mtawa monk aitwaye Dionysus Exigus, aliweka tarehe isiyobadilika ya kuzaliwa kwa Yesu kuwa ni Disemba 25. “Kulingana na taratibu za ki-Roma, alikosea kuipanga tarehe ya kuzaliwa kwa Kristo (yaani, miaka 754 baada ya kupatikana nchi ya Rumi) kama ni Disemba 25, mwaka 753”. (Angalia: Encyclopedia Britannica, toleo la mwaka 1998) Tarehe hii ilichaguliwa ili iendane pamoja na sikukuu ambazo zimeshagandana na imani za kipagani.

Mapagani wa Kirumi walisherehekea Disemba 25 kama ni ya kuzaliwa kwa ‘mungu’ wao wa nuru, aitwaye Mithra.

Quote:
"It is a historical fact that Christmas is not the day or the season when Christ was born. So why observe a day that is a lie? 
—D.S., California

“Mnamo karne ya pili A.D, hiyo sherehe ya Mithra ilikuwa ni ya kawaida zaidi ndani ya Ufalme wa Rumi kuliko Ukristo, ambayo ilizaa mifanano iliyo mingi” (The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, toleo la mwaka 1995).

‘Waungu’ wengine wakipagani waliozaliwa Disemba ya 25 ni: Hercules mtoto wa Zeuz (Wagiriki); Bacchus, ‘mungu’ wa mvinyo (Warumi); Adonis, ‘mungu’ wa Kigiriki, na ‘mungu’ Freyr wa Ugiriki-mapagani wa Roma.

JE, VIPI KUHUSU BABA KRISMASI SANTA CLAUS?

Kama viumbe visivyokuwa binaadamu aliens watafika duniani katika wakati wa Krismasi, bila ya shaka wataamini Krismasi kuwa ni sherehe ya kufurahikia kuzaliwa kwa Baba Krismasi Santa. Majina ya ‘Santa Claus’, hayamo popote ndani ya Biblia.
"I cannot find Christmas in the Bible nor can I find that Jesus Christ told us to observe Christmas. Santa Claus is a lie that some people teach their children every year. For that matter, Christmas is false since it has nothing to do with Christ or His birthday.
—P.A., Georgia

Hata hivyo, Mtakatifu Nikolas Saint Nicholas (Baba Krismasi Santa Claus) alikuwa ni mtu halisi, askofu, ambaye alizaliwa miaka 300 baada ya Yesu. Kwa mujibu wa hekaya za kale, alikuwa ni mtu mwenye huruma mno na alitenga nyakati za usiku kwenda kutoa zawadi kwa mafukara. Baada ya kifo chake mnamo Disemba ya 6, watoto wa shule huko Ulaya walianza kusherehekea siku hiyo kwa karamu kila mwaka.
Baadaye Malkia Victoria aliibadilisha sherehe hiyo kutoka Disemba ya 6 kuwa ni Disemba ya 24 kuamkia Krismasi.

JE, YESU AU WAFUASI WAKE WALIWAHI KUSHEREHEKEA KRISMASI?

Kama Yesu alimaanisha kwa wafuasi wake kusherehekea Krismasi, angeliifanyia kazi yeye mwenyewe na kujikusanya pamoja na wafuasi wake. Hakuna sehemu iliyotajwa ndani ya Biblia kwamba kuna mfuasi yeyote aliyewahi kusherehekea kuzaliwa kwa Yesu kama Wakristo wanavyofanya leo.

“Kanisa halikupatapo kuweka sikukuu kwa ajili ya sherehe za tukio la Krismasi hadi ilipofika karne ya 4” (Angalia: Encyclopedia ya Grolier)

"The gifts our children had asked of Santa Claus created a financial burden on us. The lies about Santa Claus and his flying reindeer were misleading our children. I discovered that the Christmas tree and its ornaments and giving of Christmas gifts come from ancient Roman festivals. I also learned that the Christmas tree represents idolatry, which is an affront to God (Exodus 20:4-5). Jesus Christ never sinned in His life and says we should avoid sin, going against God's will (Hebrews 12:1-4)."
—B.B., Canada

Hivyo, tunaona kwamba sio Biblia wala Yesu na wafuasi wake waliosema kitu kuhusu sherehe za Krismasi ambazo sasa zinahusisha viingilio vya sherehe, biashara, na matumizi yaliyochupa mpaka, ni utovu wa akili kwa mfananisho wowote wa imani.

Kwa watu ambao hawakuelewa madhumuni hayo ya kanisa, kitendo cha sikukuu hiyo kuadhimishwa katika nyakati hizo kilitosha kwa wao kuamini kuwa hata Krismasi ilikuwa ni sikukuu ya kipagani.

Mwaka 1743 Wajerumani wengi na hata Wamarekani waliokuwa wakipinga sikukuu ya Krismasi walisema sikukuu hiyo ni ya kipagani. Ingawa katika karne ya 18, baadhi ya wasomi walianza kuja na mawazo tofauti na kutoa maelezo yaliyokuwa mapya masikioni mwa watu, mawazo yao yalikuwa ni njia nyingine ya ufafanuzi.

Deuteronomy 12:30-32: 
"...Do not inquire after their gods, saying, 'How did these nations serve their gods? I also will do likewise.' You shall not worship the LORD your God in thatway... Whatever I command you, be careful to observe it; you shall not add to it nor take away from it"

...ujiangalie, usije ukanaswa ukawafuata...; wala usije ukauliza habari za miungu yao, ukisema, Mataifa haya waitumikiaje miungu yao? Nami nifanye vivyo. 

Usimtende kama haya Bwana, Mungu wako; ...Neno niwaagizalo lo lote liangalieni kulifanya; usiliongeze, wala usilipunguze.

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